CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) and SCSS (Sassy CSS) are both style sheet languages used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML. They share a lot of similarities but differ in syntax and features. Here are the main differences between CSS and SCSS, along with their respective advantages:

  1. Syntax:

    • CSS: It uses a simple and straightforward syntax with a set of rules and properties to style elements. It’s a plain text file with a “.css” extension.
    • SCSS: It is a superset of CSS, meaning all valid CSS code is also valid SCSS. However, SCSS introduces additional features and a more structured syntax. SCSS files have a “.scss” extension.
  2. Nesting:

    • SCSS allows for nesting of CSS rules within other rules, making the code more organized and easier to read. In CSS, you don’t have this nesting capability.
  3. Variables:

    • SCSS supports variables, which allow you to define and reuse values throughout your stylesheets. This can be very useful for managing colors, font sizes, or other common values. CSS does not support variables.
  4. Mixins:

    • SCSS supports mixins, which are reusable blocks of code that can be included in other rules. Mixins can accept arguments, making them dynamic and versatile. This feature is not available in CSS.
  5. Partials and Imports:

    • SCSS allows you to split your styles into smaller files called partials and then import them into one main SCSS file. This modular approach helps organize code and makes it easier to manage large projects. CSS does not have this capability.
  6. Mathematical Operations:

    • SCSS supports mathematical operations, allowing you to perform calculations within style declarations. For example, you can add, subtract, multiply, or divide values. CSS alone cannot perform such calculations.

Advantages of CSS:

  • Simplicity: CSS is easy to learn and use, especially for small projects or simple styling needs.
  • Wide Browser Support: Being the standard for styling web pages, all browsers understand and support CSS.

Advantages of SCSS:

  • Readability: The nested structure and use of variables make SCSS code more readable and maintainable, especially in larger projects.
  • Reusability: Mixins and variables allow you to create reusable components, reducing code duplication.
  • Modularity: The ability to split styles into smaller files and import them ensures a more organized and manageable codebase.
  • Advanced Features: SCSS provides advanced features not available in CSS, such as mathematical operations and conditional statements, which can make styling more flexible and dynamic.

In summary, CSS is suitable for simple projects or basic styling, while SCSS is a more powerful and organized option, especially for larger and more complex projects. SCSS enhances the capabilities of CSS by adding features like nesting, variables, mixins, and mathematical operations, making it a popular choice among developers.